What is Limescale?
Limescale forms when hard water is heated above 61°C or when it is left to evaporate on surfaces such as taps and showerheads. Hard water is water that contains high quantities of calcium and magnesium ions. These hardness minerals, in the form of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate, are what precipitate out of hard water to form limescale. Therefore, to clean or remove limescale, we need something that will dissolve or soften calcium carbonate and/or magnesium carbonate.
Acids are generally very good at dissolving things and in particular, the following list of acids will dissolve limescale.
Warning: Some of these acids are extremely hazardous and their use as a descaler is best left to professionals. Additionally, some acids, hydrochloric acid in particular, will discolour (blacken) chrome taps and fittings.
1) Acetic acid
Vinegar is just dilute acetic acid, so it’s readily available around the home.
Mix half a cup of water and half a cup of white vinegar (not…